Monday, June 1, 2020
Strategic formulation is the process of determining appropriate courses of action for achieving organisational objectives and thereby accomplishing organisational purpose. In a business context, it means what are the products and services the organisation will deliver, what type of market they will entry, which capabilities are required, how will they allocate the resources, and what the returns organisational seeks? Strategic formulation is very important as it is the crucial part in the strategic management. A good and effective strategy is very important to the organisation because it helps the organisation handle threats, seeking and grab the opportunities, and solve the weeknesses and enhance the strengths of the organization in order to survive in the competitive environment. 3.1 Distinction between Business Strategy and Corporate Strategy Business strategy is a long-term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal or objectives. Corporate strategy is the scope of the different industries and markets the organization competes within in order to achieve its organizational purpose. Normally, corporate strategy is supposed to be determined before the marketing strategy. In strategy formulation, it must included three stages of strategy. There are business level strategy, corporate level strategy, and international or globalisation level strategy. 3.2.1 Business Level Strategy Business level strategy is an integrated and coordinated set of commitments and action of the organisation uses to gain a competitive advantage by exploiting major competencies in specific products and services. It is concerned with how the organization business competes in a specific market. It also concerned the strategic decisions about the product choices, meet the customer expectations, exploiting or creating new opportunities, and gaining competitive advantages. Besides, it is refers to the aggregated strategies of single business firm or a stra tegic business unit (SBU) in a diversified corporation. According to Michael Porter, an organisation must formulate their business strategy into three generic strategies to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage and long-term success. The three generic strategies are cost leadership, differentiation strategy, and focus strategy. 3.2.2 Cost Leadership The first generic strategies in business level strategy which are identified as Porters Five Forces is known as cost leadership strategy. Cost leadership is involving a firm being the lowest cost producer within the industry. This allows the firms to outperform rivals within the industry because it can be charged in lower prices. Although, the firm charge in lowest cost base, it stills can earn a profit. A dominant market share allows the firm to accumulate the greatest experience and the market share can continuing to grow to increase the cost advantages. A strategy of growth which enhance the accumulative experience and fur ther lowers costs. A cost leadership strategy allows an organization to generate above-average profits even it is intensive rivalry. A low cost producer will be in a better position in relation to the threats of new entrants and or substitutes. Cost leadership risks can be expensive as the organisation continually updates the capital equipments. The activities of the cost leader maybe easy to imitate. 3.2.3 Differentiation Strategy Differentiation strategy is aimed at a broad market and involve the organisation competing on the basis of a unique or different product which is sufficiently valued by customers for them to pay a premium price. A major advantage of producing differentiated product is vitals will find it difficult to imitate. Besides, they also required different resources, capabilities, and organisational arrangements than cost leadership. There are some several types of differentiation strategy that are design or brand image, customizing products to suit the customers in specific requirements, state-of-the-act of technology, marketing ability, reliability, products engineering skills, and creativity. A differentiation strategy provides a defence against competitive rivalry because it creates brand loyalty which helps to protect an organisation from price competition. The brand loyalty is to be overcome by defence against new entry and substitutes. The buyers are constrained by a lack of alternatives and premium price are easier to pay back for suppliers. Differentiated strategy has inherent risks. The high or premium price charged for differentiation cannot be too expensive above the competitors that it results in reduced the brand loyalty. Competitors may narrow the attributes of differentiation which results in customers being faced a viable substitute. 3.2.4 Focus Strategy Focus strategy occurs when an organisation undertakes either a cost leadership or differentiation strategy but within only a narrow segment of the mar ket. It also can be defined as market niche strategy, concentration on specific geographical market, isolating a unique segment product line, and isolating a specific buyer group. By focusing on a niche of the market, the organization must be placed to meet the buyers expectation. By focusing on the needs of specific segments that exist in the industry, the organisation can achieve competitive advantage either through lower costs or differentiation. The risk of following in focus strategies are the customer preferences may change and the niche player may be unable to respond, broad-based competitors believe the segment represents an attractive submarket and outfocus the focuser, and the difference between the segment and the main market narrows leaving focus-based competitors at a disadvantage. 3.3 Resource-Based Approach to Strategy Formulation The two fundamental reasons for making the resources and capabilities of the firm the foundation for its strategy are internal and capabilities provide the basic direction for a firms strategy. The resources and capabilities are the primary source of profit for the firm. Resources are the inputs into the production process while capability means the capacity to perform some task. Resources are the source of an organizations capability but capabilities are the main source of an organizations competitive advantage. The value of resources and capability of a business are sustainability and appropriability. Sustainability included durability, transparency, transferability, and replicability. 3.4 Corporate Level Strategy Corporate level strategy means overall scope of the different industries and markets the organisation competes within in order to achieve the organisational goals. Corporate strategy decisions included investment in diversification, vertical integration, acquisitions, and new ventures; the allocation of resources between the different businesses of the firm, and divestments. 3.5 Growth Strategies Growth strategies have four strategies that an organization might follow that are market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification. 3.5.1 Market Penetration Market Penetration is to increase market share in your existing markets using your existing products. This strategy relies upon the organization existing resources and capabilities and therefore is relatively low risk. 3.5.2 Market Development Market Development means entering new markets with your existing products. This can be targeted the new market segments and new geographical area, or devising the new uses for the products. 3.5.3 Product Development Product Development is developing the new products to sell in your existing markets. The ability to innovate is crucial in developing products for rapidly changing customer markets. 3.5.4 Diversification Diversification is developing new products to serve new markets. This will involve greatest level of risk it may be necessary where the organization existing products and markets offer little opportunity for growth. There are two diversification strategies such as related diversification and unrelated diversification. Related diversification refers entry into related industry which there is still some link with organizations value chain. It is included vertical integration and horizontal integration. Unrelated diversification refers to a situation where organisation moves into a totally unrelated industry. It can be called conglomerate diversification to reflect that managing a portfolio of companies. Thus resulting four core categories of strategy alternatives can be achieved internally through investment and development, or externally through mergers, acquisitions, and strategic alliances 3.6 Portfolio Analysis Portfolio analysis is simply different business units that organisation possess. The two primary models are the Boston Consulting Group Matrix and The General Electric-Mc Kinsey Matrix.T he business portfolios overall uses is to determine whether the combined growth and profitability of the businesses in the portfolio will allow the company to attain its performance objectives. 3.7 Corporate Parenting Corporate parenting is concerned with how a parent company adds value across the businesses that make up the organisation. Corporate parent refers to all those levels of management that are not part of customer facing and profit run business units in multi-business companies. The concept of corporate parenting is useful in helping an organization to decide which new businesses it should be proceed on. It also helps parent company decide how to manage the business. 3.8 International Level Strategy International level strategy refers to the linkages between markets that exist across worldwide. What happens in one county has an impact on occurrences in other countries. These linkages may be economic, financial, social, political, in effect, any thing that leads to increased interdependence among nations. These strategies have included four types of international strategy that are multidomestic strategy, global strategy, and transnational strategy. 3.8.1 Multidomestic Strategy Multidomestic strategy is aimed at adapting products and service in national markets. Thus, responding more effectively to the changes in local demand conditions. The local manager needs to determine how the products and services can meet the local customer expectations. 3.8.2 Global Strategy Global strategy is the organisation provides a standardised products and services for international markets. An organisation seeks to have their own manufacturing, marketing, and RD centralised in a few locations. A combination of standardisation with centralised facilities and functions enable them to reap substantial economies of scale. 3.8.3 Transnational Strategy Transnational strategy is seeks to simultaneously achieve global efficiency, na tional responsiveness, and worldwide leveraging capabilities of its innovations and learning.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Qualitative research focuses on understanding a research query as a humanistic or idealistic approach. This type of research is used to understand peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and interactions (Pathak, Jena, Kalra, 2013). Qualitative research includes an Ã¢â¬Å"array of interpretive techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate, and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the social world (Cooper Schindler, 2014).Ã¢â¬ This type of research is highly criticized as Ã¢â¬Å"unscientificÃ¢â¬ because it lacks scientific rigor, but through appropriate research design, data collection, interpretation, and communication the rigor of qualitative research is ensured (Mays Pope, 1995; Whittemore, Chase, Mandle, 2001). Some types of qualitative research that are ordinarily undertaken are individual or group interviews, focus groups, and case studies (Cooper Schindler, 2014). NCR Corpor ation has made the decision to move its corporate headquarters from Dayton, Ohio to Duluth Georgia. Duluth is a suburb of Atlanta with a population of 26,600, with their average age being 35.5 and average income being $60,161 (United States Census Bureau , 2013). This combined with tax incentives, a large educated workforce, and significant connections to global markets are the reasons NCR has given for undertaking this transition. This move follows a trend of major American companies relocating their headquarters andShow MoreRelatedThe Importance of Demography to Development11868 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pagespurposes. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, developers, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy, through subdisciplinary areas such as survey research, evaluation research, methodological assessment, and public sociology. Sociological methods, theories, and concepts compel the sociologist to explore the origins of commonly accepted rules governing human behavior. This specific approach to reality is known as the sociologicalRead MorePsychology Workbook Essay22836 Words Ã |Ã 92 Pagesmethod? The scientific method proves or disproves competing ideas. Scientists make careful observations and therapies which are revised based on new observations . 2. The steps of the scientific method are (1) identify a problem or research question, (2) design a study, (3) collect data, (4) analyze data, (5) draw conclusions, and (6) communicate findings. Identify the step associated with each of the following activities: __3___ Dr. Lopez noted absent or present by each studentsRead MoreMy Knowledge And Belief Of Digital Television9351 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesefficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The research will be undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting job satisfaction. It is hoped that the research will present a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of digital TV business, the factors causing the dissatisfactionRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words Ã |Ã 820 PagesKochtanek and Joseph R. Matthews The Complete Guide to Acquisitions Management Frances C. Wilkinson and Linda K. Lewis Organization of Information, Second Edition Arlene G. Taylor The School Library Media Manager, Third Edition Blanche Woolls Basic Research Methods for Librarians Rona ld R. Powell and Lynn Silipigni Connoway Library of Congress Subject Headings: Principles and Application, Fourth Edition Lois Mai Chan Developing Library and Information Center Collections, Fifth Edition G. Edward EvansRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagesand Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work that today qualify as constituting the subject of organisational theory. Whilst their writing is accessible and engaging, their approach is scholarly and serious. It is so easy for students (and indeed others who should know better) to trivialize this very problematic and challenging subject. This is not the case with the present book. This is a book that deserves to achieve a wideRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesFoundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 18 Organizational Change and Stress Management 577 Appendix A Research in Organizational Behavior Comprehensive Cases Indexes Glindex 637 663 616 623 Contents Preface xxii 1 1 Introduction What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 4 What Managers Do 5 Management
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Strategic Diversity Plan July 29, 2016 Dear teachers, parents and stakeholders, It is my privilege to share with you Trumann Public Schools strategic diversity plan for 2016-2021. It is the mission of Truman Public Schools to educate all students and to that end we have developed a plan to help reach students that we have not reached as well in the past. It is our intent to develop a school that helps to facilitate a more pluralistic society as well as the academic growth of our students and the growth of the community at large. This plan will be used to aid us in implementing researched based methods to improve student achievement throughout the district. It is also our intent to utilize this plan to foster respect for diversity in religion, ethnic background, culture, gender and all other forms of diversity. The plan outlines five goals that we have found for our school district. These goals show our commitment to provide the highest possible standards of education for all students in our district and to ensure the fair and equitable treatment of all members of our community. We consider understanding individual differences in each student and teacher so that we can adopt the appropriate programs of study for them of the utmost importance. Many hours of intensive effort have gone into the development of this plan, but the work is not finished. The district will continue to monitor and adjust this plan according to the changing needs of our school and community to ensureShow MoreRelatedA Letter From District Administrator1569 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Letter from District Administrator Greetings Parents, Staff, Students, and Community Members, Hazelwood School District is committed to providing an equitable education to our diverse learners with culturally responsive instruction. Through our commitment, we have formed a Strategic Diversity Planning team that consists of district and school administrators. The team reflected on the district mission, vision, student demographics, and performance data. Our extensive reflection revealed theRead MoreThe Cabot School District Strives to Meet the Educational Needs of Every Student1344 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStrategic Diversity Plan Outline Mission and Overview The Cabot School district is committed to educating all students to be responsible citizens who value learning, treat others with dignity and respect, and successfully adapt to the demands of a rapidly changing society. The Cabot School District strives to meet the needs of Ã¢â¬Å"Every Child, Every Classroom, and Every DayÃ¢â¬ . The Cabot School District is committed to meeting the needs of all students not only academically but also socially andRead MoreDiversity And Cultural Diversity1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestrait. The authors also affirmed that a cultural competent system acknowledges, integrates and incorporates the relevance of culture, evaluation of cross-cultural relations, , and adaptation of services to meet culturally unique needs(pg.294). Diversity and cultural competence are two main concepts that are essential to address and take action to incorporate minorities with the main goal to have citizen engagement. Citizen engagement which is defined as the ability, and incentive for regular citizensRead MorePolicy And Program : Setting The Context1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChapter 4: Policy and program Ã¢â¬â Setting the context Celebrating Diversity Ã¢â¬â Policy and Program Ã¢â¬Å"We are not in the land of ethnic minorities, Fairfield is dealing with ethnic majorities. It has gone past the point of trying to plan and encourage a multicultural society, they have inevitably become oneÃ¢â¬ . - (Gibbeson, 2014) According to Gibbeson, Fairfield is a city that experiences a lot of cultural maintenance, as a place where roots need to be up-kept. Fairfield City Council strongly identifies withRead MoreRecommendation Of Strategic Diversity Plan Essay1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand Parents, As superintendent of the Dollarway School District I am pleased to announce the Strategic Diversity Plan that our diverse committee has outlined for the forthcoming school year. The intent of this plan is to create a work environment that is consistent with the communities we serve as well as developing a curriculum that will give our teachers a unique perspective and our students a better education-competitive to our neighboring school districts. With the open mind from our facultyRead MoreEssay on Swot Analysis College1030 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFischer October 29, 2012. SWOT Analysis Strengths: Location Low student to teacher ratio Weaknesses: Crime College Mission/Vision Lack of Diversity Threats: Economy Peer Insitutions Opportunities: Economy External fundraising efforts Strengths: Location Low student to teacher ratio Weaknesses: Crime College Mission/Vision Lack of Diversity Threats: Economy Peer Insitutions Opportunities: Economy External fundraising efforts Strengths: Location The college may beneÃ¯ ¬ t most fromRead MoreStrategic Plan, Part Ii: Swott Analysis1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHeading: Strategic Plan, Part I: Conceptualizing a Business * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Strategic Plan, Part I: Conceptualizing a Business * * University of Phoenix * * Courtney Authement * * September 20, 2010 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Strategic Plan, PartRead MoreDeveloping Policies Of Trinidad And Tobago1674 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs I look at the developing policies of Trinidad and Tobago which embraces access to quality education. I found these document which supports our vision, the STRATEGIC PLAN OF THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, (MOE), (2002-2006). And MINISTRY OF EDU-CATION, EDUCATION POLICY PAPER (1993 - 2003). In the past Trinidad and Tobago has had equity and equality issues (UNESCO, 2003) these were the developing policy that embraces access to equality education for all. And in these documents the government is focusingRead MoreEmployment And Training : Strategic Plan1469 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Broadmeadows Education, Employment and Training Strategic Plan 2016-2026 Contents Introduction Data collection and analysis 1. Profile of Broadmeadows population 2. Profile of labour market and employment 3. Profile of educational and training institutions Conclusion and issues Vision Objective 1: Objective 2: Objective 3: Objective 4: Community engagement strategy References Introduction According to some existing research on Broadmeadows, there are evident data and reports indicatingRead MoreVista University Strategic Planning For 20251713 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBuena Vista University Strategic Planning for 2025 In this strategic plan, we are looking at todayÃ¢â¬â¢s situation to help determine the future structure of Buena Vista University at the Council Bluffs location in 2025. The strategic plan consists of a vision and mission statement, SWOT analysis, strategy, and success metrics. Vision Statement Ã¢â¬Å"Our objective is to be in the top 10% of private colleges in financial strength and operational soundness by year 2025.Ã¢â¬ Mission Statement Ã¢â¬Å"Our purpose is to
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Managerial Finance Problem Review Set Capital Structure and Leverage If a firm utilizes debt financing, an X% decline in earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) will result in a decline in earnings per share that is larger than X. True b. False 2) Firm A has a higher degree of business risk than Firm B. Firm A can offset this by using less financial leverage. Therefore, the variability of both firms expected EBITs could actually be identical. 3) It is possible that two firms could have identical financial and operating leverage, yet ave different degrees of risk as measured by the variability of EPS. ) Which of the following events is likely to encourage a company to raise its target debt ratio, other things held constant? An increase in the corporate tax rate. An increase in the personal tax rate. An increase in the companys operating leverage. d. The Federal Reserve tightens interest rates in an effort to fight inflation. We will write a custom essay sample on Problem Review Set Capital Structure and Leverage or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page e. The companys stock price hits a new high. 5) The firms target capital structure should be consistent with which of the following statements? Maximize the earnings per share (EPS). Minimize the cost of debt (rd). Obtain the highest possible bond rating. Minimize the cost of equity (rs). Minimize the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). 6) Which of the following statements isAs a firm increases the operating leverage used to produce a given quantity of output, this will normally lead to an increase in its fixed assets turnover ratio. b. normally lead toa decrease in its business risk. normally lead to a decrease in the standard deviation of its expected EBIT. d. ormally lead to a decrease in the variability of its expected EPS. e. ormally lead to a reduction in its fixed assets turnover ratio. 7) Reynolds Resorts is currently 100% equity financed. The CFO is considering a recapitalization plan under which the firm would issue long-term debt with a yield of 9% and use the proceeds to repurchase common stock. The recapitalization would not change the companys total assets, nor would it affect the firms basic earning power, which is currently 15%. The CFO believes that this recapitalization w ould ikely to occur if the company goes ahead with the recapitalization plan?
Saturday, April 18, 2020
Sylvia PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry, as many researchers have pointed out, is strewn with pictures of the holocaust. The influence of her personal life on her poems is self-evident as many of her works are semi-autobiographical in nature.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Sylvia PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The influence of her father, Otto Plath, in her poetry is unmistakably clear (Butscher 3). OttoÃ¢â¬â¢s life and especially his death right before SylviaÃ¢â¬â¢s eighth birthday left a profound imprint on her imagination and nurtured her style as a poet. The presentation and the poetics of torture so evident in PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry, I believe, has stemmed from her personal life and her ancestry. The connection between the private and the public that Plath so subtly made in her poetry has been critiqued handsomely in poetics research. Plath used her private live as a medium to make it a publ ic show, where the personal dissolves completely, to form a ludicrous public show of the body (Butscher 11). Therefore, in this essay I will discuss PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poems, Daddy and Lady Lazarus, where she uses death to recreate the self. Both the poems are of confessional nature, are semi autobiographical, and meddle in the private life of the poet. The paper is arranged in three sections. First, it discusses the life and philosophy of Sylvia Plath. Second, the essay discusses the style of PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s works. Thirdly, it will discuss two of her poems that demonstrate a public show of the private life. The first aim of the essay is to understand life of Sylvia Plath. She was an American born writer and poet of German origin. She was educated in America and then married the British poet Ted Hughes in 1956 and had two children. Her adult life was strewn with bouts of depression and her inclination to commit suicide. She finally committed suicide in 1963. Plath gave birth to a new gen re of poetry, which has been termed as confessional poetry. Both the poems discussed in the essay are confessional in nature with distinct features of the personal life of Plath being projected in the text. The political and worldview of Plath must be mentioned in order to understand her poetry. Plath worldview was mostly influenced by postmodern philosophers like Nietzschean (Peel 42). Her political and worldview are intermingled not only her direct usage of political stance in her poems especially in Ariel but also demonstrates her fight with the Ã¢â¬Å"OtherÃ¢â¬ in order to establish self-identity.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many critics have viewed this fight as a personal and political battle that is distinctly her political view. The influence of the existentialist philosophy is also apparent in her search for self-identity through nullification of the other. O ne of the biggest influences on Sylvia PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry was Otto Plath, her father whose life must also be brought under the microscope to understand how far the influence of her father on her poems was, or were they actually a misinterpretation of too casual reading. Otto Plath was a German born in Polish Corridor. He then migrated to America in 1901 and settled in Boston with a teaching position at the Boston University (Butscher 6). PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Aurelia, was an American of Austrian origin. Both of PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s parents grew up speaking German until the First World War when the surge of the patriotic Americans ended this (Travis 278). Both of PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s parents lived their adult life in America, especially during the rise of Nazism and the Second World War. He died of a gangrenous toe, and during the process of amputation, he died. These facts of Otto PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s life are distinctly suggested in the poem Daddy written in 1962: Ghastly statue with one gray to e Big as a Frisco seal And a head in the freakish Atlantic Where it pours bean green over blueAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on Sylvia PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the waters off beautiful Nauset. (Plath Line: 9-13) Plath compares her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s toe with that of a Ã¢â¬Å"Frisco sealÃ¢â¬ and describes it to be grey in color directly indicating to her own fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s gangrenous leg as well as to his German origin. Therefore, in a strict play of the private incidents such as the death of her father with gangrene and his German lineage are presented in the poem to actually demonstrate PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s abhorrence for her ancestry and therefore making a public show of it. There are other distinct references of her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s German origin in the poem as in stanza eight of the poem we find mention of manifestly Austrian particulars: Ã¢â¬Å"The snows of the Tyrol, the clear bee r of Vienna / Are not very pure or trueÃ¢â¬ (Line 36-37). Germany and Austria are two nations that share a common language, but are distinct. More importantly, Otto Plath does not seem to have any connection with Austria and the relevance of the lines in OttoÃ¢â¬â¢s life becomes unclear, as they are not explained further in the poem. Images of oppression and the holocaust are replete in the poem as Plath uses words and phrases to describe the destruction in Nazi Germany: swastikas, barbed wire, fascists, brutes, devils, and vampires. Though apparent reading of the poem with little thought into its inner meaning would suggest that PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poem is a Ã¢â¬Å"runaway train barreling through one psychic nightmare after the otherÃ¢â¬ (Platizky). PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s forceful vindictiveness against the father relates as a paradoxical need to return to him: Ã¢â¬Å"get back, back, back to youÃ¢â¬ (Line 59). However, on closer reading proves to be a conscious attempt to recreate a space for self, creating an identity that breaks away from the psychological imprint the father has on the poet. Clearly, the poet wants to disassociate herself from the memories of her father whom she still loves and misses. This can be seen as a process of creating a self-identity through repeated emphasis of the pronouns such as Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"myÃ¢â¬ . In a way Plath clearly demarcates the demonic imagery of the patriarchy through the description of the holocaust and creating an identity of self where the self is the victim Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"I think I may well be a JewÃ¢â¬ (Line 40) Ã¢â¬â of the autocratic patriarchy.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, according to Roger Platizky, the poem can be read as a Ã¢â¬Å"psychological victory of the self over the otherÃ¢â¬ (106). In the end, by metaphorically killing the father, Plath successfully kills the memory of him and creates her independent self. The poem demonstrates the recreation of the self through the death of the father figure. Lady Lazarus too is a holocaust poem. Death again forms an integral part of the poem as has been observed in Daddy. Death in Lady Lazarus is projected like an art that her torturer, Herr Doktor prevents. The poem tells the story of a woman on whom the Nazi doctor was performing experimental medication to resurrect her from death. The image of the doctor is that of the Nazi dictator. Here too we get significant reference to Ã¢â¬Å"footÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"JewÃ¢â¬ . In a way, Plath identifies with art as a means of prostitution Ã¢â¬â a means of earning Ã¢â¬â and death as the way of reviving the self. Theresa Collins points out that P lath uses the holocaust imagery to present the Ã¢â¬Å"controllerÃ¢â¬â¢/controlledÃ¢â¬ relationship (156). Mathew Boswell studies both the poems and writes that in both these poems Plath uses the imagery of the holocaust to describe the torture being inflicted on the narrators and it was through death (55). Lady Lazarus is a means of representation of the cannibalistic attitude of the Nazis thorough the strip shows that Lady Lazarus performs and her suicide in the end is a victory over the patriarchal control over the female flesh. The speaker of Daddy internalizes the process of being a victim while externalizing her heritage. The speaker assumes a Jewish identity though there is mention of the mother in the poem. The poem initially sets to show the narrator as the victim of the torturous nature of the father figure and metaphorically compares him to the Nazis. The imagery of the holocaust sets the clear image of a torturous father in the mind of the readers. The narrator takes the position of the victim in this poem, as was seen in case of Lady Lazarus, and talks of the overbearing figure of her father whose presence was crushing her identity. Therefore, there is a clear attempt to segregate the torturer from the victim with persistent repetition of the Ã¢â¬ËyouÃ¢â¬â¢ that recurs in the rhyme scheme of the poem. The narrator addresses Daddy, as the narrator calls to him, while she emphasizes on their separateness (Travis 278). There is no Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ in the poem it deals in only Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ . Creation of a separate identity, of the self in the two poems is clearly demonstrated through the metaphor of death. Plath wrote both the poems just a few months before she committed suicide, and therefore, the idea of death was used a trope to show that the independent self can only be created by killing either the self or the other. Death becomes the main theme in both these poem through which one realizes the true self-identity. Bibliography Boswell, Matthew. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËBlack PhonesÃ¢â¬â¢: Postmodern Poetics in the Holocaust Poetry of Sylvia Plath.Ã¢â¬ Critical Survey, vol. 20 no 2 (2008): 53-64. Print. Butscher, Edward. Sylvia Plath: Method and Madness. Tuscan, AZ: Schaffner Press, 2003. Print. Collins, Theresa. Ã¢â¬Å"PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s Lady Lazarus.Ã¢â¬ Explicator vol. 56 no. 3 (1998): 156-158. Print. Plath, Sylvia. Daddy. 12 October 1962. Web. https://www.internal.org/Sylvia_Plath/Daddy. Platizky, Roger. Ã¢â¬Å"PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s Daddy.Ã¢â¬ Explicator (1997): 105-107. Print. Travis, Isabella. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËI have always been scared of YouÃ¢â¬â¢: Sylvia Plath, perpetrator trauma and threatening victims.Ã¢â¬ European Journal of American Culture, vol. 28 no. 3 (2009): 277-293. Print. This essay on Sylvia PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry was written and submitted by user Jonathon Mays to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
What's a Liberal Arts College Should You Attend One SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve started researching colleges, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve probably seen the term Ã¢â¬Å"liberal arts schoolÃ¢â¬ thrown around quite a bit without really understanding what it means. What is a liberal arts college, actually? And how is it different from other sorts of colleges and universities? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to get a straight answer when it comes to defining a liberal arts college. In this post, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll dive a little deeper into defining the liberal arts before explaining what it means to get a liberal arts education. Then, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk about how these colleges differ from non-liberal arts schools and how that may affect your educational experience. What Are the Liberal Arts? To get a good understanding of the origins of the liberal arts, we have to go all the way back to classical antiquity - think ancient Greece in its prime. Participation in civic life was pretty important to many classical philosophers, who thought that a certain fundamental knowledge should be expected of active free citizens. In ancient times, liberal arts included grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, and even music and astronomy. The Ã¢â¬Å"liberalÃ¢â¬ in liberal arts has nothing to do with political liberalism, and everything to do with the original Latin roots of the words: artes liberales translates to subjects of the free person. Modern understanding of the liberal arts has, unsurprisingly, changed from that of ancient philosophersÃ¢â¬â¢. When we talk about the liberal arts today, weÃ¢â¬â¢re referring to a broad range of subjects: literature, languages, history, philosophy, math, and sciences. What liberal arts donÃ¢â¬â¢t include are any sort of vocational, technical, or professional studies. What Is a Liberal Arts Education? Now that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve gotten a mini-history lesson, we can get into what it means to get a liberal arts education in modern times. Different cultures sometimes have their own unique twists on what it means to offer a liberal arts education. In general, though, a liberal arts education is one that focuses on producing well-rounded individuals. American schools that provide a liberal arts education might aim to produce Ã¢â¬Å"global citizensÃ¢â¬ : individuals who are well-equipped to participate in an informed, ethical way in the world around them. One could say that the ultimate goal of a liberal arts education is to teach students how to think critically, and to effectively interpret and analyze new information they encounter as they navigate their environments. These programs tend to be flexible in the sense that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s not only one career path you could feasibly pursue post-graduation. If you attend a liberal arts program, you might say you have a liberal arts degree.Examples of liberal arts degreesinclude languages and literature, biology and life sciences, philosophy, cultural studies, and psychology. What DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Count as a Liberal Arts Education A liberal arts degreeis not something you would receive in a vocational, technical, or professional program. These sort of programs exist to educate students with the purpose of preparing them for a specific career - that is, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a clear professional end goal. As such, these educations are generally more career-oriented. Examples of non-liberal arts educations include law school, medical school, engineering programs, and architecture programs. Architecture may be considered a form of art - it just doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fall under the heading of liberal arts. What Is a Liberal Arts College? Like I alluded to in the introduction, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no set or standardized definition of a liberal arts college. In general, though, they are educational institutions that emphasize undergraduate education (as opposed to producing research) and award at least half of their degrees in the liberal arts fields of study (like I described above). Students generally pick one course of study to focus on, while also taking courses in other diverse subjects. Check out our post on top liberal arts colleges for examples. Liberal arts colleges tend to encourage their students to study a wide range of subjects instead of focusing solely on one field of study. The way schools actually do this varies, however - there are a few different paths that liberal arts colleges can take here: Core Curriculums - Core curriculums are set plans of study that include mandatory courses in different subjects that all students must take in order to graduate. An example would be the core curriculum at PurdueÃ¢â¬â¢s College of Liberal Arts within Purdue University. Distribution Requirements - Distribution requirements are plans of study that require students to take courses across a range of different subjects, but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t dictate exactly which courses a student must take in order to graduate. At Williams College, for example, students have to take courses in three different Ã¢â¬Å"divisionsÃ¢â¬ (in addition to meeting requirements for their major of choice): Languages and the Arts, Social Studies, and Science and Mathematics. Open Curriculums - Open curriculums mean that students donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to meet any course requirements - either in the form of specific, mandatory courses or distribution requirements - in order to graduate. They are free to choose any courses available to them as long as they meet the requirements for their choice of major. An example of an open curriculum is the one offered at Amherst College. How Are Liberal Arts Colleges Different From Other Schools? Liberal arts colleges are often compared to research universities, although some schools exist as hybrids - both pushing to be research powerhouses while also striving to offer a liberal arts education. The traditional liberal arts college focuses primarily on undergraduate education, however, which means that professors tend to be hired and retained for their teaching and not necessarily for their research experience. This tends to affect student/professor relationships and overall student learning experiences. For example: Undergraduates may have more access to professors because thereÃ¢â¬â¢s less of an emphasis on research and graduate programs. The colleges themselves tend to be smaller than research universities, with smaller class sizes and student: faculty ratios. There may be fewer research opportunities available. Access to research projects is one of the major differentiators between liberal arts colleges and other types of schools. To make this a bit easier to understand, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s a chart with the typical characteristics of a traditional liberal arts college vs. a traditional research university: Liberal Arts Colleges vs. Research Universities Liberal Arts Colleges Research Universities Degree Program Offerings More limited, but sometimes unique, degree programs Wide selection of degree programs Pre-Professional Options Few (if any) pre-professional offerings More pre-professional degree offerings Research vs. Teaching Professors are generally focused on teaching over research Professors are generally focused on research and graduate students over teaching undergraduates Class Size Smaller average class size Larger average class size Research Opportunities Fewer research opportunities and less exposure to research More research opportunities and exposure to research Public vs. Private Usually private May be public or private Lectures vs. Seminars Many small seminar offerings More lectures, fewer small seminars Mentorship Career Opportunities Easier to form relationships with profs and peers for career professional connections More difficult to form relationships with profs, but more career fairs and recruiting events The issue with the above chart is that many of the top private research universities also pride themselves on providing liberal arts educations for undergraduates - there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a clear delineation, then, between a liberal arts college and a research university in these circumstances. Top research universities may, for example: Have core curriculums, distribution requirements, or even open curriculums that are very similar to the ones youÃ¢â¬â¢d see at a traditional liberal arts college (Brown has a famously open curriculum, for example). Offer few (if any) pre-professional degree programs. You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t find many business or finance degree programs, for example, at many of these liberal arts-minded research universities. Strive to offer smaller seminar-style courses to encourage student participation and class discussion. See HarvardÃ¢â¬â¢s freshman seminar program as an example. We can see, then, that there are really three options here when discussing this spectrum of school types: we have liberal arts colleges and research universities, but there are also hybrid options that tend to be pretty prestigious and highly-ranked. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to keep these in mind when researching colleges, but remember that these hybrid options are often top-tier and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be considered safe bets if youÃ¢â¬â¢re submitting applications. What Sort of School Is the Right Fit for You? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re leaning towards the liberal arts in general (or are even still making up your mind, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what type of college would be the best fit), these next considerations should help you figure it out. Career Goals Do you know exactly what you want to do after you graduate? Many students donÃ¢â¬â¢t know exactly what they want to do professionally when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just applying to college. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not sure, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just ok - itÃ¢â¬â¢s normal. Liberal arts educations (either at liberal arts colleges or hybrid schools) really encourage students to explore and develop their interests. If this sounds appealing, a liberal arts education will probably be a good fit. A liberal arts education is also a good option if you want a flexible degree that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily hinder a variety of job prospects across fields/disciplines. Amherst College doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have official pre-med or business majors, for example, but it still sends quite a few students to graduate programs in those fields. Alternatively, if you know specifically what youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to do and know that you need a pre-professional degree to pursue your career of choice, a liberal arts degree may not be the most efficient way to meet your goals. Engineering is a prime example - if you get a non-engineering degree (liberal arts or otherwise), youÃ¢â¬â¢d need to double-back to get the specialized education you need before advancing professionally. You also donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to attend a liberal arts college or hybrid university to get a flexible degree - many traditional research universities offer degree programs that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily pre-professional (like English, Economics, or Romance Languages). In sum: your career goals can inform whether you want to go the liberal arts route or not, but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily make a liberal arts college better or worse than other school options. Are you sure where youÃ¢â¬â¢re headed, or are you still figuring things out? Research Experience Is it important that you get research experience as an undergraduate? If you plan on pursuing a graduate degree in a research-heavy or competitive field (e.g. if you want to go to medical school or get a PhD), itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to get good research experience as an undergraduate. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easiest to do this at a research university. Some traditional liberal arts colleges offer these opportunities, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to scope relevant departments before committing to a liberal arts college. For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at Williams College (a top liberal arts college) versus Johns Hopkins University (a top research university that offers a liberal arts education to undergrads): Johns Hopkins University received 939 grant awards in 2014, making it the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s most funded university by the NIH Williams didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make the list of the top 50 most-funded schools Put simply, more grant money = more research opportunities. Research universities tend to get more funding because they invest a lot of resources into producing research. Target Major Are you looking for something more general (e.g. English, Romance Languages, History) or something pretty specific (e.g. Cognitive Science, Integrative Biology, Slavic Languages Literature)? Liberal arts colleges tend to offer fewer and more general majors because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just smaller schools. Sometimes, though, they offer some unique and even niche options. For example, Amherst offers general options like American Studies, Economics, and English, but they also offer a unique major called Law, Jurisprudence, and Thought. In total Amherst only offers 28 majors, whereas Arizona State University offers over 300 options. Are you okay with not having a super specialized major (unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re into one of a collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s niche options)? YouÃ¢â¬â¢d do alright at a liberal arts college. Do you want more variety and/or more opportunity for specialization? A traditional research university or a hybrid university may suit you better. Environment Educational Experience This is perhaps the most important consideration. Would you like the hustle and bustle of a big university, with big lectures taught by big-name professors? Or would you prefer something more intimate, with smaller seminars taught by professors who are dedicated to teaching? What really matters is what you are most comfortable with. The only way to really figure this out is to visit a few schools. To give you some examples, most of the top liberal arts colleges are relatively small, whereas the top research universities (hybrid or otherwise) are much bigger: Liberal Arts Colleges: Williams = 2,045 undergrads, Amherst = 1,792, Swarthmore = 1,542, Bowdoin = 1,805 Hybrid Colleges: Harvard = 6,694 undergrads, Princeton = 5,391, Yale = 5,447 Public Research Universities: UCLA = 43,000 undergrads, Texas AM = 49,000 If you want something small and intimate, you would likely be happier at a liberal arts college. If you want something bigger and busier, public universities may be best. If you want something in-between - a bigger campus but with opportunities for smaller classes - you might look into some of those hybrid options. Now would be a good time to think about whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re cool with crowds. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Need more guidance when it comes to picking the school thatÃ¢â¬â¢s best for you? WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve got you covered. Read about whether it even matters where you go to college and how to get into your top-choice college. Set on a liberal arts school? Check out the top-ranked liberal arts colleges. One of the next questions you may have might rise out of a more practical concern - you know how your experience may differ at a private liberal arts college when compared to other types of schools, but should you expect any difference in cost? Learn more about different college expenses. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Qualitative VS Quantitative Research - Essay Example When we think about research, things that come to our mind are e.g. facts & figures, science, observation, logic, evaluation, etc. etc. Adopting the scientific approach and adhering to a focused approach to come-up with certain findings do not contain values, passions, politics and ideology of the researcher. Using this kind of research methodology is called a Ã¢â¬Å"positivisticÃ¢â¬ approach and it is the most commonly used approach in general public. In short, the qualitative research refers to the existence of reality which is analyzed and understood with less rigorous methods and procedures while the quantitative research is aimed to reach to an objective (quantified) solution on the basis of cause & effect and examining theoretical relationship into a practical scenario. However, the emerging social changes and globalization are posing ineffectiveness of traditional deductive approach and forcing social researchers to opt for the inductive approach. Assessing qualitative research through a social constructionist lens, however, is premised upon the belief that research findings are always already partial and situated; that they actively construct the social world which is itself an interpretation and in need of interpretation. If we reject the very notion of an empirical world untouched by the social and the political, how are we to assess the research claims we make? If we concede that Ã¢â¬Å"truthÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"objective knowledgeÃ¢â¬ cannot be invoked unproblematically, upon what grounds are we to say one research claim is better (i.e., valid) than another?. It is a kind of cold war between the old and new generation qualitative researchers. The latter reject the quantitative, positivist methods and assumptions. Having poststructural and/or postmodern sensibilities, they argue that positivist methods are nothing but all about telling stories about societies. Many new qualitative researchers are of the opinion that these methods do